How Can Anti-lock Braking System (ABS) Technology In Cars Work?

ABS prevents the wheels from locking up, thus preventing uncontrolled recurrence of the automobile and reduces the distance travelled without slipping.

Driving on Auto Services Edmonton expressways can be enjoyable and thrill-inducing, as many of you surely know. One gets to unleash a car’s full potential. The city roads keep us grounded, but the moment you hit the highway, there’s no looking back. You will almost never see a car going below 100 km/hr.

The situation becomes particularly tricky during monsoons, as cruising in a car at these high rates is the perfect recipe for a disaster if the roads are slick. Even so, it does occur, so what can you do in a situation on a slippery road when you have to suddenly apply the brakes of your car? With no anti-lock brake system, the wheels of your car stop spinning and the car will begin to skid. You’ll completely eliminate control over the automobile and the results can be deadly.

Anti-lock braking systems (ABS) take plenty of the automobile safety challenge out of the sometimes nerve-wrecking event. In fact, on slippery surfaces, even professional drivers can not stop as fast without ABS as an ordinary driver can with ABS.

What is Anti-lock braking system (ABS) in cars?

As its name suggests, the anti-lock braking system is a security system in cars and other automobiles that keeps their wheels from locking up and helps their drivers to maintain steering control. Also known as anti-skid braking system sometimes, it empowers the wheels of a vehicle to maintain tractive contact with the floor so that they don’t go into an uncontrolled skid.

With ABS, you have more control on your car during situations like sudden braking. Basically, it is intended to help the driver maintain some steering ability and prevent skidding while braking.

ABS Working principle

The basic theory behind anti-lock brakes is simple. It prevents the wheels from locking up, thus avoiding uncontrolled skidding. ABS generally offers improved vehicle control and reduces stopping Edmonton Auto Repair distances on dry and slippery surfaces.

A skidding wheel (where the tire contact patch is sliding relative to the street ) has less traction (grip of the tire on the street ) than a non-skidding wheel. By way of instance, if your car drives over a street covered in ice, it is unable to proceed and the wheels will keep spinning, since no traction is present. This is because the contact point of the wheel is slipping relative to the ice.

ABS modifies the brake fluid pressure, independent of the quantity of pressure being applied on the wheels, to bring the speed of the wheel back to the minimum slip level that is mandatory for optimum braking performance.

ABS has four major components:

1) Speed Sensor

This sensor monitors the speed of each wheel and determines the essential acceleration and deceleration of the wheels. It consists of an autobody saskatoon exciter (a ring with V-shaped teeth) and a wire coil/magnet assembly, which generates the pulses of electricity as the teeth of the exciter pass in front of it.

2) Valves

The valves regulate the air pressure to the brakes throughout the ABS action. There is a valve in the brake line of every brake that’s controlled by the ABS. In the first position, the brake valve is open and it helps the pressure from the master cylinder to be transferred to the brakes. In the second position, the brake valve stays closed and pressure from the master cylinder to the brakes is constrained. In the third place, the valve releases some of the pressure on the brakes.

The next step is repeated until the vehicle comes to a halt. The resistance that you feel when braking abruptly at high speeds is actually the brake valves controlling the pressure that is being transferred to the brakes in the master cylinder.

3) Electronic Control Unit (ECU)

The ECU is an electronic control unit that receives, amplifies and filters the detector signals for calculating the wheel rotational speed and acceleration. The ECU receives a signal from the sensors in the circuit and controls the brake pressure, according to the data which is examined by the unit.

4) Hydraulic Control Unit

The Hydraulic Control Unit receives signals from the ECU to use or release the brakes under the anti-lock conditions. The Hydraulic Control Unit controls the brakes by raising the hydraulic pressure or bypassing the pedal force to decrease the braking power.

ABS in operation

While braking, if a wheel-locking situation is detected or expected, the ECU alarms the HCU by sending a current and controls it to release the brake pressure, allowing the wheel velocity to increase along with the wheel slip to decrease. After the wheel speed increases, the ECU reapplies the brake pressure and limits the wheel slide to a certain level (Note: When the braking action is initiated, a slippage between the tire and the road surface in contact will happen, which makes the speed of the vehicle different from that of the tire). The Hydraulic Control Unit controls the brake pressure in each wheel cylinder depending on the inputs from the system sensor. As a result, this controls the wheel speed. This process is repeated for the next braking operation.